Goldwing Tech - Electrical

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Goldwing Tech - Electrical

This page contains the following articles.  All the articles will scroll from top to bottom.  If you are interested in one particular article, click on the link and it will take you there.

Emergency Flashers Ken Chapin Feb 23, 99
Overhaul of Starter Relay Chris Olson Feb 25, 99
Sluggish Starter Motor Chris Olson Feb 25, 99
Sluggish Starter Motor Ken Chapin Feb 25, 99
Starter Cable Burned Jerry Pophal Feb 25, 99
Engine Cutting Out Ken Chapin Feb 26, 99
Charging System Diagnostic Procedures Chris Olson Mar 21, 99
Dead Starter Robert Peterson Apr 08, 99
Build Your Own Digital Voltmeter J.R. Ferguson May 02, 99
Starter Bushings Gordon May 20, 99
Permanent Magnet Alternator Fundamentals Dick Taylor Nov 26, 99
Installing Aftermarket Electrical Accessories Chris Olson Dec 03, 99
Download Starter Overhaul Instructions Ken Chapin Dec 10, 99
GL1000/1100/1200 Stator Testing Procedures Ken Chapin Dec 26, 99

The following article submitted by Ken Chapin on Dec 26, 1999
GL 1000/1100/1200 Stator Testing Procedures
For the purpose of testing the Stator assembly, use the following procedure:

1. check the ACG coupler for discoloration, which indicates overheating and it is faulty.  This is the connector to the immediate left of the battery and consists of 3 yellow wires.  If the connector is found to be discolored and/or brittle from overheating, an ACG Coupler Repair Kit (Part # 31105-ML8-305) is available from your local HONDA dealer.  Ensure that the coupler is well packed with dielectric grease.  An alternative is to remove the coupler altogether and ?hardwire/solder? the yellow wires together.  This method is also acceptable but does make future testing somewhat difficult and would require cutting of the wiring.

2. unplug the ACG coupler and start the engine.
WARNING:  Unplugging the ACG coupler while the engine is running can cause sparks which can ignite flammable fuel vapors.  You could be burned.  Do not unplug the ACG coupler while the engine is running.

3. with a Voltmeter, measure the A.C. voltage between each pair of the three (3) yellow  wires in the ACG coupler that leads to the rear of the engine and enters through the rubber grommet leading to the Stator.  Conduct the voltage tests between wires A and B, A and C and finally between B and C.  With the engine at a steady 3,000 RPM, the voltage should be at least 50 Volts of A.C. voltage from each pair (or phase).

4. if the test indicates 50 Volts A.C. voltage or more from each pair (or phase), the Stator does not require replacement.  However, if either pair of wires does show less than 50 Volts of A.C. voltage, replace the Stator.

5. Continuity tests must also be performed to determine if the Stator has developed an electrical short within itself or if it has shorted to ?ground?.  With your tester set on the Ohmeter @ R X 1, check for continuity between each pair (or phase) of yellow wires, A and B, A and C and B and C.  You should have continuity at all three pairs (or phases).  If you find any one pair with no continuity, then this indicates an open circuit in the windings of the Stator and it requires replacement.  Then check for continuity between each yellow wire to a source of ?ground?.  You should NOT have continuity and if you do find continuity at any wire, this indicates a short within the Stator windings and requires replacement.

**  for your Stator to be healthy, it must pass all of the above tests.

The following article submitted by Chris Olson on Dec 03, 1999
Guidelines For Installing Aftermarket Electrical Accessories
The charging system in the GL1000 and GL1100 models is capable of delivering 20 amps.  The GL1200 models (except SE-i and Lmtd) will deliver a maximum of 24 amps.  I have tested the individual circuits on a GL1100, and the following guide can be used to calculate electrical loads when hooking up extra lights, trailers, etc..
Amp draw of individual circuits:
Headlight                           5.0 amps (high beam)
Tail and dash lighting          3.8 amps
Ignition system                   1.3 amps
Fuel pump                         1.2 amps (GL1200 only)
Stereo/audio system           1.0 amp
Battery                              1.5 amps
The GL1100 I tested was equipped with accessory clearance/running/tail lighting which draws 3.4 amps and auxiliary driving lights which draw 7.0 amps.  It's important to always allow 1.5 amps to keep the battery charged.  Even though the GL1000/1100 system will deliver 20 amps, it won't maintain voltage at the regulated level of 14.7 VDC if total electrical load is equal to max charging system output.  Normal load on a GL1000/1100 is 12.6 amps; a GL1200 is 13.8 amps.  Theoretically this would leave 7.4 amps reserve on the 1000/1100 and 10.2 amp reserve on the 1200.  However, these charging systems are rated at 5000 rpm.  At slower cruise speeds they put out less than maximum power.  The GL1100, for instance, puts out ~17.0 amps at 3800-4200 rpm.  That leaves only 4.4 amp reserve.  If we turn on the aux running lights (3.4 amps) the charging system is close to maxed out.  If we turn on the driving lights, the charging system won't be able to keep the battery charged - and system voltage will start to drop.  It' very important to install a voltmeter on your bike to monitor system voltage at all times when running extra electricals.  You can safely add electrical load as long as the system voltage remains at ~13.0 VDC or higher.  When the system operates at a voltage lower than 13.0 the battery will slowly discharge.

The following article submitted by Dick Taylor on Nov 26, 1999
Permanent Magnet Alternator Fundamentals
All three four-cylinder models have charging systems that are very similar.  They are three phase stators with permanent magnet rotors.  There are most likely changes in the physical construction such as different core material, different wire size and number of turns.

The major differences in these systems is in the regulator/rectifiers as solid state electronics for automotive use was undergoing rapid change during the period these machines were manufactured.

The rectification is what is called a full wave bridge. The windings are connected in a delta configuration, although the diagrams show them as a Y or star, there is no connection to the center of the Y.  There are 3 pairs of diodes with each pair connected in series and the 3 pairs are in parallel except for the junction of the anode and cathode of the pairs.  The stator wires are connected to the pairs at the junction of their anode and cathode.  The common cathodes are connected to the battery positive terminal while the common anodes are connected to ground and eventually to battery negative.  This configuration results in 6 pulses per alternator revolution, with each phase being positive (or more positive than the others) for 60 degrees.

How it works: There is a device that senses the battery voltage, and compares it to a reference voltage.  If the battery voltage is higher than it should be the sensing device turns on a Silicon Controlled Rectifier which shorts one (or more) of the phases to ground.  The SCR is connected to the stator lead(s) at the Yellow wires.  The path of conduction is from the stator lead connected to the anode of the SCR to ground, then through either or both of the anodes of the diodes which are not connected to the SCR and then back to the other two phases.  This short circuit lasts at most 1/3 of an alternator revolution since the phase changes polarity from positive to negative and the SCR stops conducting.  This short circuit has two effects;

1. The output voltage is reduced during the time the short is present and the battery has to supply current during that portion of the cycle.

2. There is at least 60 degrees of SCR conduction during the time the other phases are supplying current thus the current through the shorted phase acts to reduce the strength of the magnetic field and therefore the voltage output of the other two phases.

The power dissipated at this time is less than would be supplied to the operating system at full voltage.  While the SCR and diodes have some power loss the voltage drop across the resistance of the stator is limited to the same voltage that would be across 1 diode and 1 SCR - about 2 volts total.  Without knowing the resistance of the stator windings there is no way to get a number for the power loss during this time but suspect it is relatively low.

The earliest models used a single SCR across only one of the phases.  The voltage reference was a large zener diode connected to the battery through some large resistors.  This zener diode in no way shunted any of the power or acted as a control device - it was simply a measurement device.  It did get hot, as did the resistors in series with it, and required a good deal of cooling which is why the large heat sink attached to it.  It is no doubt this scheme appeared to be the regulating circuit but it was just a very inefficient measurement device.

I don't know when or, even if, the 1100's went to a 3 SCR regulating system (editor's note: they did in 1983) but the 1200's all had a more efficient regulating device and used an SCR for each phase.  The circuits in the 1200's are thick film and ceramic substrates with some integrated circuits to do the sensing rather than the discrete components of the '70's.  This was about the stage of development of automotive electronics at that time.  They required less power, the reference voltage was no longer a big honking zener, and things generally ran cooler.

How the system works in operation:
If the battery voltage is not at the regulated level and the rpm's are constant you will see an increase
in stator current flow with added load but a drop in voltage.  However your measurement devices may not be sensitive enough to detect this.
Editors note:  I have tested the system on a GL1100  with a Fluke digital AC ammeter on the stator legs.  Setting the ammeter to the 0-200 amp scale, engine operating at 2000 rpm, cooling fan off, and no additional load other than stock, the ammeter will indicate ~10.7 amps of current flow per leg.  With fully charged battery, turn on the cooling fan and current flow increases to 11.0 amps.  Switch on aux lighting; the flow increases to 11.2 amps.  Switch on aux driving lights and it increases to 11.3 amps.  Obviously, at 2000 rpm the stator is not able to generate enough power to supply the full electrical load.  Increase engine rpm to 4000-5000 and stator current flow increases to 12.8 amps.

If the battery voltage is at the regulated level you will see either an increase or decrease in current and a decrease in voltage with added load.  Well that didn't tell us much did it?  Here's why - during
the unregulated portion (when the voltage is not at the regulated level) the SCR is not conducting and the current in the stator is essentially AC.  During the regulated portion, the SCR is conducting
at least part of the time and some of the current in the stator is now pulsating DC.

This might give some indication of the reaction of the current probe to the DC.  Try to find an RPM at which the SCR isn't conducing - this should be just below the regulation voltage - then slowly increase rpm and observe the ammeter.

As an observation, most automotive electrical systems fail due to heat, heat, and vibration.  Hard wiring of the three wire stator connector should have little if any effect on the heat generated by the alternator.  Even though the alternator voltage rises to compensate for the added resistance of the connector the power dissipation of the alternator would not necessarily increase if the current out of it did not increase.  The power dissipation of the alternator is determined by the current supplied by the alternator and the internal resistance of the stator, not the terminal voltage.

Additional load up to the limits of the alternator will not usually cause a failure unless the alternator is faulty.  By adding loads such that it is difficult to maintain the battery properly charged, the risk of alternator failure will increase since more current is being required and more heat generated within the alternator.

The following article submitted by Gordon on May 20, 1999
Subject: Starter Bushings
In our Chapter we have several Wings with sluggish starters.  All of the problem starters have been "REBUILT" by experts using the only honda parts available, brush plates and brushes. They just don't work!   We have read over 300 articles on Wing starters and none of them address the problems we have found.  This is a planetary starter and the bushings in the planetary gears wear out causing severe drag.  The bushings on the armature also wear and cause drag.  Honda knows this and has made changes to the GL1200 starter to correct most of these problems.  The brush end of the armature has a roller bearing in the GL1200, not a bushing as in the GL1000-1100.  The planetary gears are supported better in the GL1200.  The drive end is supported with a bushing in all 4 cylinder models.  These bushings are not available from Honda or any other source we can find.  We have a bushing from a diesel injection pump that can be trimmed to fit the planetary gear but it is far to expensive ($18US).  We have had these bushings made by a local machine shop at a cost of $7US each.  If anyone needs these bushings, we had extra ones made for you.  If anyone has a source of metric bushings (13mm x 9 mm x 12mm long) please reply to   US standard bushings (1/2"od x 3/8"id x 1/2"L) are $1.50US.  It would sure be great to find metric bushings at a similar cost.

The following article submitted by J.R. Ferguson on May 02, 1999
Subject: Build Your Own Digital Voltmeter
I began this project because the voltmeter gauge on my '79 Wing was grossly inaccurate when there was a load on it. It would register 10 volts when my mult-tester would show 12.2 volts. I began to wish that I could mount my multi-tester in the dash. Even took it apart to see what I could do. Decided that it wasn't feasible. Not long after that, I saw a voltmeter module in the Radio Shack catalog, but it was by order only, so I did. When it arrived, I read the instructions and realized that I had no idea what they were talking about. I solicited the help of friends on the "Wings on the Internet" Discussion list. Gerry Pophal provided me with the basic instructions on the wiring. Not wanting to "fry" this thing, I asked the list for more help and along came Dave McElderry (from Ohio, no less). He took a GREAT deal of time and "taught" me an awful lot about electronic basics and theory. He double checked my wiring as well as answered may questions about the operations of the module itself. Mind you, he did all this via e-mail. I've never spoken to nor met either Gerry or Dave, but I'll bet when I do, we'll feel like we've known each other for years. Many thanks to these "Cyber-Friends".

 The size of this unit requires a cut-out of 1.31 X 2.68 inches.

I know that there may be some of you who wish they had one of these, but you have NO desire to build it. If you send me e-mail to that effect, I think that I could build one for you. We'll talk. Contact me at


 (1) Digital Voltmeter/Ammeter Module -- Radio Shack Part # RSU 11461498 (order only from catalog).
(1) 7805 5 Volt Regulator -- This steps the 12 v from the battery to power the unit and backlight.
(1) Roll or tube of solder -- Best to use a very fine or thin solder for the linksand CN2 connections.
(1) Roll of wire -- a light gauge will do as the unit pulls a very small load. I used 3 colors.
(1) 1 Megohm Resistor -- Make sure it is 1% tolorance. This is Resistor R(a).
(1) 10 Kilohm Resistor -- Make sure it is 1% tolorance. This is Resistor R(b).
(1) 4 inches of ribbon cable with a 14 pin "head" connector (female).
(1) A "pencil" soldering iron -- should have a fine tip. My iron is 14 watts.
(1) Digital Multi-Tester -- This is for calibrating and for checking connections and continuity.
(1) Small "Project Board". This is a perforated board that lets you place and solder parts. Mine is 1 1/2 inch square.

 NOTE: R/S normally doesn't carry the 1% resistors. You can order them, though, at the same time you order the unit. Your best bet is an electronics suppy store for these items (except the unit). Check the Yellow Pages.

 Let's Build The Thing:

 Step 1 --- Assemble ribbon cable to head connector. Insert into Connector CN1.

 Step 2 --- You need to close Links 1,2,3,4, and 6. Do this by putting a dab of solder across each link.

 Step 3 --- Connector CN1 pins 2 and 4 are connected to ground 12v (-). Also, connect the ground (or common) pin on the 5v regulator to this ground.

 Step 4 -- Now, connect 12v (+) to the Vin (Voltage In) pin of the 5 volt regulator AND one end (doesn't matter which) of R(a). Remember R(a) is the 1 M Resistor.

 Step 5 -- The other end of R(a) is connected to one end of R(b) (the 10K resistor) AND Connector CN1 pin 1 wire on ribbon cable.

 Step 6 --- The other side of R (b) is connected to the ribbon cable wire for CN1 pin 2.

 Step 7 --- Connect the Vout pin on the 5 v regulator to the wire from CN1 pin 3. Connect CN1 pin3 to CN1 pin 6".

 Step 8 --- Finally, connect the wires fron CN1 pin 10 to the wires from pins 12 & 14. Connect CN1 pin 9 to pin 13.

 That's it for the wiring. Now we have to do just a little more soldering.

 Locate the annunciator pads on the left hand side. Refer to the instructions. This is what symbol will be shown on the display. We want the "V" for Volts.We want to put a dot of solder across the "V" pad and the "selected" pad. We then want to solder all the other annunciator pads to an adjacent "not selected" pad. Take a look at page three of the instructions to see the example of how they did the soldering for "C".'ve done it! All we have to do now is to calibrate the unit. Because of the resistors we used, the readings are not perfectly linear. We need to calibrate it for the range that we expect to use.

 Decide where you want to hook into you power. I found that to get the best readings, you need to hook into the battery itself. Other places have a voltage drop of up to .5 volts. I installed a relay. They are easy to install...all you do there is follow the instructions with the relay. Nonetheless, you now need to hook the + wire from our module to the + terminal of the battery and the - to the - terminal. Also, hook up the muti-tester set to measure 20v. Locate "VR1" (refer to the instructions). This can be turned with a small screwdriver. Slowly adjust VR1 until you get the same reading on both voltmeters. You won't actually get the same reading, but you will get pretty close.

 Now you can either make a cut-out in your dash or panel of your choice or do what I did. I used a "project" box that was about the right size and made a cut-out on the top with the screws. I made sure that it was waterproofed with clear caulk and mounted the "box" part under the pocket cover. I also drilled holes to allow air circulation and to prevent accumulation of condensation.

 That about does it. I've included a photograph [] of the finished and installed unit as it looks on my bike. I've also included a wiring diagram [] to give you an idea of how it all ties together. If you have any questions or if I haven't been very clear on something, just send me an e-mail with your questions. I can be reached at

The following article submitted by Robert Peterson on April 8, 1999
Subject:  Dead Starter
I pulled the dead starter out of my 82 GL1100 with the thought of updating the ground circuit with a copper grounding wire as described in the article from Ken Chapin (see subject: Sluggish Starter below).  I found all three of the grounding contact points were burned and very little grounding could have occurred.  The brushes showed no sign of wear and were at least 12 mm in length so I didn't bother to replace them even after 40,000
miles on my bike. The commutator was clean and showed no signs of wear and almost looked new after wiping off a little dust.  I cleaned the grounding contacts and added a copper grounding wire from the mounting plate to the end cap of the starter and knew it was going to work, but after testing, the starter was still completely dead.  My first thought was the starter was burned out and I would be buying a new one for many $$$.$$.  Back to
square one -- both ends of the starter were removed.  I tested all the circuits and found no continuity from the cable connecting post to the hot side brush, so there lies the problem.  I should have had a competed circuit. Four screws on the outside of starter body holding the magnetic field in place were removed (had to use an impact driver for this) and the field and cummutator slid out. I found the heavy positive wire on the field was bent and not making contact with the cable connecting post on the inside of the starter body.  This post has a slot the heavy positive wire is supposed to fit into, to make contact.  Solution - bend the wire back in place making sure it connects properly with the grove in the post, re-assemble the starter, and it is as good as new.   If someone tightens the nut that connects the starter cable too tight, the post can easily turn. If this cable connecting post turns, it will bend the heavy positive wire on the inside of the starter loosing contact and the starter will not work. The above fix only takes about 30 minutes, after you take the starter out, and beats buying a new starter.  I hate to think about all the starters that were replaced because they were thought to be burned out.  I also found that removing and re-installing the starter was not hard to do.

The following article submitted by Chris Olson on March 21, 1999
Subject:  Charging System Diagnosis Procedures
Most charging system problems can be diagnosed by the average owner if you have access to a multimeter and an ammeter.  The ammeter should have a scale of 0-5 amps and the multimeter set to the 0- 20 VDC (or similar) scale.  Connect the multimeter across the terminals of the battery.  Disconnect the positive lead on the battery and reconnect it through the ammeter.  With a warmed up engine running at 3000 RPM, headlight on high beam, fan motor off, and a fully charged battery, the multimeter should indicate 14.5 volts and the ammeter should show 3 amps.
Stator testing:
Disconnect the alternator main lead at the block connector.  With the multimeter set to measure resistance (ohms) check the continuity between all three of the yellow leads coming from the stator.  If there is a lack of continuity between any two of the leads - the stator has an open coil and must be replaced.  Also check the continuity between each yellow lead and ground.  If continuity exists on any of the leads to ground the stator has a shorted coil and must be replaced.  The engine must be removed from the frame to facilitate removal of the rear engine cover to gain access to the stator.
Regulator/Rectifier testing:
With a warmed up engine operating as outlined in the first test, increase engine speed to 5000 RPM.  The voltage should never increase above 15 VDC.  If it does, the regulator is malfunctioning.  Trace the leads from the finned rectifier unit to the 8-pin connector and separate the connector.  Check the resistance between the green and each of the 3 yellow leads.  In the normal direction of current flow the diodes tested in this manner should offer little resistance, the precise figure being 5-40 ohms.  If the test probes are reversed, a very high resistance reading should be obtained (approx 6K ohms).  Repeat the same test between the red/white lead and each yellow lead in turn to check the negative diode trio in the rectifier unit.  The same readings should be obtained.  If any of these six tests show readings not as outlined here, the rectifier is defective and must be replaced.  The regulator/rectifier is a combined unit and for all practical purposes is unserviceable.

The following article submitted by Ken Chapin on February 26, 1999
Subject: Engine Cutting Out
I have often heard the complaint " When I accelerate hard, or go over a bump, my bike just quits for a second and then goes again.  Sometimes it quits and won't start again until I pull over to the shoulder.  It's just like the ignition switch is being turned off and then on again. " Closely inspect the 30 amp main fuse located under the plastic cap at the starter solenoid relay to the right of the battery.  Alot of GL owners don't even know there's a fuse there.  This fuse controls all power to your bike.  It is a small flat piece of metal a little over an inch long.  It is secured at either end by a screw.  Recently, I have been finding these fuses with hairline cracks in them.  This gives on/off again contact.  Replace the fuse.  There should be a spare one mounted inside the plastic cap.  If there isn't, get a couple from your dealer.  These you cannot buy at your local auto parts store.

The following article submitted by Ken Chapin on February 25, 1999
Subject:         Sluggish Starter
Recently, a tip came to me from Larry Shoebridge of Ontario, Canada.  By redirecting the ground circuit from the commutator brush within the starter to the aluminum housing cap of the starter, a more substantial connection is made.  Close examination of the stock OEM starter will reveal that the current flows through the brush and wire then down through a mounting plate that is secured with two (2) rivets to the brush plate.  This plate simply sits in a collar groove when the starter is reassembled creating the completion of the current circuit to ground.  Dissimilar metals are used here and we all know that corrosion lives instarter mod.jpg between dissimilar metals and good contact can suffer.  The modification involves drilling a hole in the end cap and securing a separate length of spiral stranded copper wire with a nut & bolt to a solid connection of the brush mounting plate (either spot weld, rivet or nut & bolt).  A spot weld is recommended.  With this modification, you will notice an improvement in the cranking performance of your starter. Interested parties can E-mail Ken  --   or Larry  --
Either one of us will provide detailed instructions on the modification. Scanned photos are also available.  To download complete starter overhaul instructions from this website please click on either of the two selections below.  These instructions are printable - they are plain text files and should print on three pages.  Use the file print command in your browser to print them after they download.
Starter O/H Instructions - GL1000/1100
Starter O/H Instructions - GL1200

The following article submitted by Jerry Pophal on February 25, 1999
Subject:  Starter Cable Burned
I had been looking for the cause of of hard starting on my GL1000 when hot.  I found the cable from the starter relay to the starter was too long, and had been resting on the muffler which melted through the insulation.  This was effectively shorting the starting current to the muffler.  It was most noticeable after riding the bike for hours, then restarting before it had cooled off.  My bike has aftermarket mufflers installed.

The following article submitted by Chris Olson on February 25, 1999
Subject:  Sluggish Starter Motor
Electric motors are designed to develop a fairly constant amount of torque over a fairly broad voltage range.  The DC starting motor used on the GoldWing will develop fairly constant torque on a voltage range of 10.2 to 14.5 VDC.  If you are experiencing sluggish starter operation, and premature brush/commutator failure, 9 times out of 10 the culprit is severely eroded contacts in the starter relay.  A solid electrical path is not established between the battery and starter motor contacts in the relay, which causes a severe voltage drop to the motor.  Low voltage results in excessively high ampere draw (at the motor), which will cause sluggish operation, overheating, and heavy arcing at the brushes.  If you are sure your battery is in good condition, and all connections are clean and tight, and the starter just doesn't last as long as it should - check the relay.

The following article submitted by Chris Olson on February 25, 1999
Subject: Overhaul of Starter Relay
If you are mechanically inclined, the GoldWing's starter relay can be overhauled as follows.  Disconnect the negative lead on the battery.  Disconnect the positive and starter motor leads at the relay, and the plastic multi-terminal connector.  Remove the relay from the bike.  Open the main fuse cover, loosen the fuse retaining screws and remove the fuse.  Remove the plastic relay cover.  Remove the two screws that retain the contact head to the coil body.  Using a pencil soldering iron, and being very careful not to melt the plastic on the contact head, unsolder the coil leads and separate the two halves.  You will note the relay is made up of an electromagnetic coil, plunger, copper alloy contact disc, return spring, and two copper alloy terminal studs.  The head of the starter motor stud will always be more worn than the battery stud.  I recommend switching positions of the two studs upon reassembly.  Remove the studs, and dress the heads with a mill file to remove the area where the stud is worn/burned away.  If it is necessary to remove more than .030" of material from the head, go to a rebuilder or auto parts store and install new studs.  When milling the heads make sure both stud heads are within .010" of each other for thickness.  Do not attempt to remove all the pitted areas on the starter motor stud - it will get too thin.  Also dress the disc with the file to remove eroded areas and make the contact surfaces flat again.  If the plunger is rusted/corroded, polish it with steel wool and lube this part with WD-40 when reassembling.  DO NOT use any type of grease.  Reassembly is the reverse of the disassembly procedure and should be obvious.  There is an o-ring between the coil body and contact head.  Make sure this seal is in good shape when you reassemble.  A starter relay rebuilt in this fashion will last as long as a new one, if you have to replace the studs, you'll only have about $2.50 invested along with some time.  There is absolutely no reason to replace the relay with a new one except in situations where the electromagnetic coil fails.

The following article submitted by Ken Chapin on February 23, 1999
Subject: Emergency Flashers
It wasn't until 1984 that Honda began installing emergency flashers on GoldWings as standard equipment/safety device.  One can be made and adapted/mounted to earlier models by using simple, inexpensive items from your local auto parts store and positioning a switch on your left handlebar, or other convenient location.  For instructions and parts list, email Ken